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This accumulation on one side of the thylakoid membrane can then be used to power the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. By definition, photosynthesis is a process by which photoautotrophs convert the energy derived from the Sun into usable chemical energy. Four of the five answers listed below are part of the light-independent reactions. Because starch molecules are not soluble, they provide a means of carbohydrate storage that does not lead to osmosis. The calvin cycle is a three step process that uses carbon dioxide to synthesize carbohydrates. This reaction requires inorganic phosphate and ATP plus pyruvate, producing PEP, AMP, and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP i).The next step is the fixation of CO 2 into oxaloacetate by the PEP carboxylase enzyme (PEPC). A) RuBP, b) FAD, c) oxaloacetate., d) ATP. The two stages of photosynthesis are light reactions and the Calvin cycle; light reactions take place first, forming the photo portion of photosynthesis, while the Calvin cycle follows, completing the cycle with several steps involving photosynthesis. ... What happens to the remaining G3P molecules in the last step of the dark reactions? A) 2, b) 3, c) 6, d) 12, e) 15. The major photosynthetic pigment; it appears green because it is poor at absorbing green wavelengths. NADPH is the reducing agent. For chlorophyll molecules with an intact chloroplast, energy can be transferred to an adjacent chlorophyll molecule instead of being lost as heat. All of the following statements are true EXCEPT ____. Calvin cycle does not use sunlight directly → referred to as the 'dark' reactions of photosynthesis. The most productive parts of the oceans are located in ______. Choose from 500 different sets of biology photosynthesis light 1 plants flashcards on Quizlet. Start studying Steps of Photosynthesis. The result of O2 added instead of CO2 is one molecule with three carbon atoms and one molecule with only two carbon atoms. Select the exception. Carbohydrates are synthesized from CO2 molecules during photosynthesis, yet have more energy stored in their chemical bonds than contained in the bonds of CO2 molecules. a) built into the thylakoid membrane, b) built into the outer membrane of the chloroplast, c) located in the interior of the thylakoid, d) located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, e) located in the stroma. This would leave ADP as a by-product. The carbohydrates are used both as starting points for energy synthesis of other molecules and as means of storing energy that can be converted into ATP from cellular respiration. In this step, the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (abbreviated rubisco ) adds one carbon to a five-carbon sugar called ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) during carbon fixation. Reactantsare the inputs of the photosynthesis process, and the outputs or products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen. Yields NADPH as well as ATP. Photosynthesis is a biochemical process for building carbohydrates using energy from sunlight and carbon dioxide taken from the air. a) occurs between photosystems I and 11, b) is called the hydrogen transfer system, c) provides energy to produce ATP molecules, d) causes excitation of chlorophyll molecules, e) requires the intermediary action of acceptor molecules. The Calvin Cycle. a) fungus, b) carrot, c) earthworm, d) Iobster, e) parasite. . Describe why NADPH is the reducing agent in the Calvin cycle. how many of each did you make? (When oxidized, not strong enough to split water, where as P2 is not strong enough reductant to form NADPH). Ms_JMiller TEACHER. What is the importance of the mitochondria? A large number of reactions is needed to rearrange the carbon atoms from five 3-carbon triose phosphate molecules into three 5-carbon RuBP molecules. Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water as substrates. The C4 pathway requires two different light-driven events, whereas the C3 pathway requires only one. What photosynthesis is most evident to us? Can energy be transferred from one chloroplast to another? The pH in the interior of the thylakoid is _________ than that in the stroma and thus more acid. Chlorophyll absorbs the light energy from the sun to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. energizing of an electron of chlorophyll by a photon of light. The carbon source for organisms that derive their energy from photosynthesis is ________. a) there is a one-way flow of electrons from photosystem I to photosystem II, b) ATP alone is produced, c) hydrogen ions accumulate in the thylakoid compartments, d)only electrons are transferred to hydrogen acceptors, e) water is not involved in any of the reactions. The calvin cycle is capable of producing more carbohydrates than the cell is able to export. Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase - oxygenase, the enzyme that normally catalyzes the first step if the calvin cycle Rubisco ________ is the most abundant protein in chloroplasts and maybe the wolrd Small, reactively mobile compounds convey electrons between these protein complexes. a) C-2, b) C-3, c) C-4, d) C-5. electron flow causes H+ ions to be transported into the thylakoid. PGAL molecules are formed from the reaction of PGA molecules with ATP and NADPH. In the first step, CO2 is added to a 5-carbon sugar called ribulose 1, aka RuBP This step is catalyzed by the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase, or rubisco for short. The dark reactions of photosynthesis (Calvin cycle) take place within the ____________. Suppose you are studying a plant that is an unusual blue color which color.of light would it not use for photosynthesis. The cells that control the amount of water, C02 and 02 that enters and leaves the leaf are called _________. An antenna complex is an assemblage of various molecules, including notably chlorophyll ones. a) formation of phosphoglyceric acid, b) donation of an electron from the photosystem to an acceptor, c) fixation of carbon dioxide, d) breakdown of the thylakoid membrane, e) formation of phosphoglyceraldebyde. rx. Water donates electrons to one end of the ETC, whereas NADP+ accepts electrons at the other end. The cells in the mesophyll in a ________leaf are usually arranged in a ring around the bundle sheath. Energizes electrons with a second input of light energy so they can be used to reduce NADP+. a) stroma, thylakoids, b) stroma, mitochondria, c) mitochondria, d) thylakoids, stroma. Describe how photosynthesis is a redox reaction. well-lit upper layer of the oceans where photosynthesis can occur. provide the electrons needed to reduce NADP. The reactions create ATP and NAPDH from precursor chemicals and water using energy captured from light by dyes such as chlorophyll. For this energy increase to take place, the carbon compounds formed by rubisco must be reduced. In eukaryotic cells, photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast. IN mitochondria, carbohydrates are broken down to generate ATP. The electrons that are passed to NADP+ during noncyclic photophosphorylation were obtained from _______. If photosynthesizing green algae are provided with CO2 synthesized with heavy oxygen ('80), later analysis will show that all but one of the following compounds produced by the algae contain the '80 label. A net energy drain: It results in the oxidation and loss, in the form of CO2, of carbon atoms that had previously been incorporated and reduced by the Calvin cycle, and second, it consumes ATP. Thus, their presence allows photosynthetic cells to absorb a broader range of visible light than would be possible with just chlorophyll lone. Learn about photosynthesis step-by-step with this quick study guide. a) carbon monoxide, b) carbon dioxide, c) hydrocarbons, d) methane, e) glucose. Photolysis involves ________. Two different principal mechanisms of CO2 fixation have been found in green plants— the Calvin cycle (or C3 pathway) and the C4 pathway. Now that we have that out of the way, let’s look at the 4 main steps of photosynthesis: Step 1 The plant takes in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through the stomata on its leaves. Rubisco hooks up RuBP with carbon dioxide from the air, the first step in making a carbohydrate. Photosynthesis captures just a small percentage of incoming solar energy. Select the exception. . a) decrease, b) no effect, c) increase. Flashcardspractice terms and definitions at your oof pace i suppose example of persuasive essay letter 300 words essay on education system. Water is an ideal source of electrons for photosynthesis. Stage One: Light Reactions In the light-dependent process, which takes place in the grana, the stacked membrane structure within chloroplasts, the direct energy of light helps the plant to make molecules that carry energy for utilization in the dark phase of photosynthesis. The light reactions of photosynthesis ____________ a) provide CO2 for the dark reactions. In a C4 plant, carbon dioxide is first combined with a compound called ________. a)photolysis, b) chemiosmosis, c) fixing carbon dioxide, d) photosystem I and 11, e) noncyclic photophosphorylation. water is not involved in any of the reactions. a) respiration, b) excretion, c) photosynthesis. “Photosynthesis Steps:” During the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide enters through the stomata, water is absorbed by the root hairs from the soil and is carried to the leaves through the xylem vessels. Which of the following chemicals has five carbon atoms? a) higher, b)lower, c) the same in both areas. a) NADP+, b) ADP, c) O2, d) H2O, e) none of the above. Get Photosynthesis Worksheet Quizlet PNG. a) red, b) yellow, c) orange, d) green, e) blue, Thylakoid disks are stacked in groups called ______. Th… The process of noncyclic photophosphorylation provides these requisites, using light energy to synthesize _________. a) in freshwater lakes, b) in the deep ocean, c) in the surface waters all over the ocean, d) along the shores. a) chemiosmotic theory, b) photosystem mechanism, c) process of photolysis, d) electron transfer system, e) cyclic pathway. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (9) Photosynthesis. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. In photosynthesis the reduction of CO2 to carbohydrate requires that both energy currency and a strong reducing substance (hydrogen donor) be in ample supply. Under the second step, the 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate molecules are reduced by gaining electrons. When NADP+ is in short supply, the ETC "backs up" greatly increasing the probability of creating highly reactive forms of oxygen known as Reactive Oxygen Species. Plant cells produce one molecule of O2 _____. The photon energizes an electron, and the electron leaves a hole behind. Products of the Calvin cycle, or dark reactions, include _____? a) the splitting of CO2 during photosynthesis, b) cyclic photophosphorylation, c) noncyclic photophosphorylation, d) both cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation, e) the Calvin cycle. This molecule contains five carbons and binds to the enzyme rubisco. When this happens, the energy released as an excited electron returns to its ground state and raises the energy level of an electron in an adjacent chlorophyll molecule. Photosynthesis most evident to us: Carried out by land plants such as trees, grasses, shrubs. How many molecules of PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde) are used to regenerate the six molecules of RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate)? The C4 pathway involves ______. Introductory Biology I … a) photons are packages of solar energy, b) the longer the wavelength of light, the more energy it has, c) chlorophyll absorbs energy from light, d) photons with different energy levels produce different colors, e) visible light is a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This process joins ADP and a phosphate (phosphorylation) which becomes ATP. (1) The transport of two electrons and two protons, by the diffusion of plastoquinone, from the stroma side of P2 to the luen side of the cytochrome complex and (2) the transfer of electrons within the cytochrome complex to a different molecule of plastoquinone, which results in additional protons being picked up from the stroma and subsequently released into the lumen. Some of the energy released during electron transport is used to hydrolyze ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate. In photosynthetic prokaryotes, it is located in membranes within cytoplasm or, in some cases, directly in the plasma membrane. Describe the process of when the reaction center is excited. a) phosphoglycerate (PGA), b) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), c) phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), d) glucose, e) oxaloacetate. Three Main steps: (1) Carboxylation, in which CO2 is added to a 5-carbon molecule; (2) reduction, in which energy and electrons are transferred to the compounds formed in step 1; and (3) regeneration of the 5-carbon molecule needed for carboxylation. One of the three-carbon molecules of G3P leaves the cycle to become a part of a carbohydrate molecule. a) true, b) false. Consists of large, light absorbing "head" containing a magnesium atom at its center and a long hydrocarbon "tail". Four of the five answers listed below are processes associated with light-dependent reactions. Most of the fossil fuels come from passed/ancient __________. Carbon dioxide, water, and light are used to make glucose and oxygen. High energy phosphate bonds are formed during which process? a) reduction of NADP, b) phosphorylation of ADP, c) photolysis of water, d) oxidation of chlorophyll, e) reduction of chlorophyll. So, instead, excess carbohydrates are converted to starch, a storage form of carbohydrates. a) a membranes surrounding the chloroplast, b) thylakoids of the chloroplast, c) cytoplasm outside the chloroplast, d) stroma of the chloroplast, e) vacuole. The light-independent reactions were discovered by ____. If these accumulate in the cell, they would cause water to enter the cell by osmosis, which would cause damage to the cell. The electron-transport molecules of photophosphorylation are ___________. The "first step" in photosynthesis is the ____________. When visible light is absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule, one of its electrons is elevated to a higher energy state. a) phosphoglycerate (PGA), b) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), c) phosphoglyceraldebyde (PGAL), d) glucose, e) oxaloacetate. The molecular oxygen that is evolved/released during photosynthesis comes from _________? Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools. Which process releases electrons to fill "holes" in chlorophyll in noncyclic photophosphorylation? The biochemical pathway used in photosynthesis to synthesize carbohydrates from CO2. How does the buildup of protons in the thylakoid occur? a) oxygen, b) light, c) carbon dioxide, d) chlorophyll, e) water. a) 10, b) 25, c) 35, d) 50, e) 75. Most carbon enters the web of life through _____________. Challenge 1: If more light energy is absorbed than the calvin cycle can use, excess energy can damage the cell. So to build carbohydrates using CO2 requires the input of energy, which comes from sunlight. Cellular respiration breaks down carbohydrates in the presence of oxygen to supply the energy needs of the cell, producing carbon dioxide and water as a byproduct. Overview of Photosynthesis. In cyclic electron transport, electrons from photosystem 1 are redirected from ferredoxin back into the electron transport chain. The first step in the NADP-ME type C 4 pathway is the conversion of pyruvate (Pyr) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), by the enzyme Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). Select the exception. All of the following take place in both photosynthesis and respiration except ______. The absorbed sunlight provides the energy that drives electrons through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. a) water is oxidized, b) NADP is reduced, c) light energy(photon) is converted into chemical energy, d) ATP is synthesized from ADP and Pi, e) an electrochemical gradient is established. (Formation of starch during the day provides photosynthetic cells with a source of carbs they can use during the night). a) red, b) yellow, c) blue-violet, d) green, e) ultraviolet. This molecule cannot be used by the calvin cycle to produce triose phosphate or RuBP. a) Two different light-driven events are necessary if electrons are to be moved allthe way from H2O to NADP, b) The pigment molecules that trap light energy are built into the thylakoid membranes, c) There are at least two different places in the overall noncyclic pathway where energized electrons are passed energetically downhill via a series of electron-carrier substances, d) One of the products of noncyclic photophosphorylation that help make possible the dark reactions of the Calvin cycle is NADPH, e) Some of the energy released during electron transport is used to hydrolyze ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate. How the buildup of protons in thylakoid membranes occurs: First, oxidation of water releases protons and O2 into the lumen. In the first step, energy from light is stored in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ( NADPH ). Which one of the following is not required for photosynthesis to proceed? In short the light reactions capture the light energy and utilize it to make high-energy molecules, which in turn are used by the Calvin-Benson Cycle to capture carbon dioxide and make the precursors of carbohydrates. The process of photosynthesis occurs in two steps. The P700 chlorophyll will not use wave lengths of light greater than 700 nm, while the P680 chlorophyll will not use wave lengths of light greater than 680 nm. Light, water, chlorophyll, and carbon dioxide are the basic requirements for this process. Flashcards. a) cyclic photophosphorylation, b) photosystem 1, c) carotenoid pigments, d) noncyclic photo-phosphorylation, e) both a and b, but not c or d. The concept that concentration differences in H+ and electric gradients across a membrane are responsible for ATP formation is known as the ______. Test. a) reduction of NADP, b) phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, c) photolysis of water, d) oxidation of chlorophyll, e) reduction of chlorophyll. Rubisco is responsible for the addition of the carbon atoms needed for the formation of carbohydrates, but by itself, rubisco does not increase the amount of energy stored in the formed bonds. These electrons reenter the photosynthetic ETC by plastoquinone. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Carries electrons from the cytochrome complex to P1 by diffusing through the thylakoid lumen. The formation of glucose-6-phosphate (sugar phosphate) from two molecules of phosphoglyceraldehyde.. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. Corn arose in the tropics and therefore is a ___________ plant. The light reactions of photosynthesis take place in the __________ of the chloroplast whereas the dark reactions take place in the ___________? The indirect product of cyclic photophosphorylation is ________? a) O2, b) ATP, c) water, d) PGAL, e) light. a) true, b) false. Because two molecules of 3-PGA are formed each time rubisco catalyzes the incorporation of one molecule of CO2, two ATP and two NADPH are required for each molecules of CO2. a) cyclic photophosphorylation, b) carbon dioxide, c) water, d) ATP, e) NADP. What are the two challenges to photosynthesis efficiency? ), Describe how Photorespiration leads to a net loss of energy and carbon. The chemical equation for photosynthesis can be represented like this: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 You can interpret this equation to mean that carbon dioxide (or CO2) and H2O (or water) are used to create C6H1206 (or suga… Calvin cycle: The Incorporation of CO2 is catalyzed by the enzyme rubisco. a) corn, b) spinach, c) sugar cane, d) crabgrass. a) O2, b) PGAL, c) ADP, d) NADP. a) ADP and ATP, b) ATP and P700, c) ATP and NADPH, d) ADP and NADP, e) P700 and P680. The reduction of 3-PGA involves two steps: (1) ATP donates a phosphate group to 3-PGA, and (2) NADPH tranders two electrons plus one proton (H+) to the phosphorylated compound, which releases one phosphate group. A) 3, b) 6, c)10, d) 12, e) 18. a) PGAL is synthesized, b) oxygen is produced, c) water is split, d) ATP is synthesized, e) electrons are returned to the chlorophyll molecule. The waxy coating on the surface of a leaf _______ in the leaf. a) chlorophyll, b) CO2, c) glucose, d) sunlight, e) ATP. The oxygen released in photosynthesis comes from ______________. Start with the basics: Quick Review of the Key Concepts of Photosynthesis . The process takes place in two major steps. Form structures that resemble flattened sacs, and these sacs are grouped into structures called grana. Plants need which of the following to carry on photosynthesis? ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate: (RuBP) A molecule that completes the first and last steps of the Calvin cycle, which creates sugar out of carbon dioxide. Most chlorophyll molecules function as antenna: Energy is transferred between chlorophyll molecules until it is finally transferred to a specially configured pair of chlorophyll molecules known as the reaction center. Stomata open and close in relation to water conditions. The first step involves an antenna complex absorbing a photon. How to write an argumentative essay thesis statement in an argument essay you will have to provide evidence without providing too much drama you’ll. (very efficient), what happens when visible light is absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule. Why is the Calvin cycle referred to as the "dark reactions". Photosynthesis Lab report. a) The C4 pathway is more common in tropical plants than in temperate-zone plants, b) The C3 pathway is more common in temperate-zone plants than in tropical plants, c) C4 plants are more efficient than C plants at fixing CO2 when the concentration of available CO2 is low and oxygen high, d) The C4 pathway requires two different light-driven events, whereas the C3 pathway requires only one, e) Some C4 plants are now very important crop plants in the Middle Wes. a) plasma membrane of the cell, b) membranes of the mitochondria, c) membranes of the thylakoids, d) membranes surrounding the chloroplast, e) stroma of the chloroplast. The result is the conversion of light energy into a chemical form. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. a) phosphoglycerate (PGA), b) ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), c) phosphoglyceraldebyde (PGAL), d) lucose, e) oxaloacetate. light energy(photon) is converted into chemical energy. These reactions actually have several names associated with them. Chemiosmosis-protons accumulate in the thylakoid and a concentration gradient develops and protons begin to diffuse through the ATP synthase . TL;DR (Too Long; Didn't Read) Light-dependent reactions change light energy to chemical energy in the first stage of photosynthesis. Challenges to the efficiency of photosynthesis include excess light energy and the oxygenate activity of rubisco. Chlorophyll molecules are bound by their tail region to integral membrane proteins in the thylakoid membrane. During cyclic photophosphorylation, _______________. Faster Rates of Photosynthesis in Spinach Spinacia Oleracea Leaves as Light Intensity Surges Abstract Photosynthesis is a food making process that autotrophic. A carbon-fixing system that precedes the Calvin-Benson cycle in some plants. Chlorophyll reflects (does not absorb) which color of light? These protein pigment complexes, photosystems, are the functional and structural units that absorb light energy and use it to drive electron transport. a) true, b) false. Which of the following occurs in noncyclic, but not in cyclic photophosphorylation? a) M. D. Hatch, b) Andrew Benson, c) Melvin Calvin, d) Robert Hill, e) both b and c. The first stable compound produced from CO2 in the light- independent reactions is _____. Course. In chloroplasts, as in mitochondria, ATP is synthesized by ATP synthase, a transmembrane protein powered by a proton gradient. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. (ex. Describe the regeneration phase of the calvin cycle. On land, photosynthesis occurs most readily in environments that are both moist and warm. Describe the Photosynthetic electron transport chain. An enzyme that adds CO2 to another molecule is called a carboxylase. This initiates a light driven chain of redox reactions that leads to the formation of NADPH. What do the light harvesting reactions use to produce what? Supplies electrons to the beginning of the electron transport chain. a) electronflow, b) splitting of water molecules, c) synthesis of ATP, d) transfer of electrons to carrier molecules, e) establishment of an H+ ion gradient. ATP and NADPH are the energy sources needed to synthesize carbohydrates using CO2 in a process called the Carbon Cycle. A) corn, b) pine, c) sugarcane, d) crabgrass, e) all except b. a) keeps carbon dioxide in, b) keeps oxygen in, c) lets oxygen in, d) lets carbon dioxide in, e) keeps water in. Eastern Michigan University. A) 400 nm, b) 500 nm, c) 600 nm, d) 700 nm. In the noncyclic pathways ________. What are the three main steps of the Calvin cycle? Spell. What are the two products of photosynthesis? a) red, b) orange, c) yellow, d) green, e) blue. a) formation of ATP, b) energizing of an electron of chlorophyll by a photon of light, c) splitting of water into H and O components, d) addition of CO2 to a five-carbon sugar, e) combining of two molecules of PGAL to form a molecule of glucose. However, it takes great deal of energy to pull electrons from water, the amount of energy that a single photosystem can capture from sunlight just not enough to pull an electron from water and produce an electron donor capable of reducing NADP+. In an oak tree, most photophosphorylation takes place in ___________. a) flow of electrons, b) synthesis of ATP through an H+ gradient, c) synthesis of NADPH, d) absorption of light by chlorophyll. a) RuBP, b) PEPA), c) citric acid, d) acetyl-CoA. Using the energy carriers formed in the first stage of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle reactions fix CO2 from the environment to build carbohydrate molecules. Only 1 to 2 percent of the sun's energy that lands on a leaf is converted into carbohydrates. Hydrogen ion flow in the thylakoid compartments ______. What two defenses do plant employ to avoid stresses that occur when the Calvin cycle cannot keep up with light harvesting. On land, where does photosynthesis most readily occur?
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