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UltraGlow® Gas Nitriding is a case-hardening process whereby nitrogen is diffused into the surface of a solid ferrous alloy by holding the metal at a suitable temperature in contact with a nitrogenous gas, usually ammonia. From all these results it can be concluded that the advantages of austenitic nitriding regarding improved mechanical properties can be achieved mainly on un- or rather low-alloyed steel grades. Figure 25. This or too rapid or nonuniform heating or cooling. To obtain a surface that is resistant to the softening effect of heat at temperatures up to the nitriding temperature. This prevents oxidation of parts Stainless steels are well known for their superior corrosion behaviour. When nitriding with dissociation rate of 15 to 35%, it is normal to control this rate H.-J. The magnitude of the permanent set in the core and case is affected by The results of the influences of chromium on the internal nitriding of technically used steels can be summarized as follows: With growing content of chromium, the maximal reachable nitrogen content within the diffusion layer increases. Hardness distribution of nitrided layer on ASP 2005 HSS. as well as on the nitriding temperature and duration. Flow of the nitriding atmosphere into the blind hole produced problems, and it was therefore difficult to ensure the same chemical composition of the nitriding atmosphere both inside and outside the injector inside the retort of the furnace. Typical examples of austenitic nitrocarburized parts are shown in Figure 9.16 (and Plate III between pages 392 and 393). change causes a stretching of the core, which results in tensile stresses that are The mass transfer at the interface of the reactive medium and metal has no influence on the velocity of the internal nitriding. gas include its safety, ease of handling, and ease of control. Globular MN (M = Cr, Fe) precipitation occurs in a ‘chaplet’ shape (Locquet et al., 1997) as shown in Figure 10.1(b). As one corresponding example, Figure 22 shows the growing profiles of the nitrided case for different steels. 6100, 8600, 8700, and 9800 series, Hot-work die steels containing 5% chromium such as H11, H12, and H13, Low-carbon, chromium-containing low-alloy steels of the 3300, 8600 and 9300 series, Air-hardening tool steels such as A-2, A-6, D-2, D-3 and S-7, High-speed tool steels such as M-2 and M-4, Nitronic stainless steels such as 30, 40,50 and 60, Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels of the 400 and 500 series, Austenitic stainless steels of the 200 and 300 series. In the case of steel, the mechanical properties can be linked via the tensile strength σy to the Vickers hardness H by a Tabor-type law (Tabor, 1951): For nitrided layers (32CrMoV13 steel), Locquet (1998) showed that the a coefficient is close to 0.4. Date Published: The effect of higher salt-bath nitrocarburizing temperatures on the corrosion properties (according to the salt spray test, DIN 50021 SS) was investigated by Gräbener and Wahl (1989). At a polarisation of 400 mV, the pitting potential is reached. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The Gas Nitriding Process. Heat treatment diagrams covering hardenability, hardness tempering, TTT and CCT can all be found in the standard dataset. Variation of pitting potential Epit with depth through nitrided layer (570°C/24 h); AISI 316 stainless steel; 1% NaCl solution (Zhang and Bell, 1985). The Low Temperature / S-Phase Nitriding Process. In the X-ray diffractogram, it is possible to see the diffraction lines of CrN associated with ferrite α, indicating a decomposition γN → γ + CrN + α; this structure gives poor corrosion resistance. In contrast, in the case of the steel C 20, within the lower zone of the compound layer contents of ε-carbonitrides up to only 2% appear. With austenitic nitriding an additional hard and compressively constrained martensitic layer is formed, which is even more effective the more severe notches exist (αk-values). However, due to the low hardness and wear resistance of ferritic, austenitic and ferritic-austenitic stainless steels, application is limited for components with tribological loads. R.S.E. This means that coating at temperatures lower than 520°C should be employed to ensure high substrate hardness for cold working steels such as D2. Iron substitution within MN nitrides (Ginter et al., 2006) or local lattice strain at the precipitate–matrix interface increases nitrogen solubility and can explain the observed excess of nitrogen (Somers et al., 1989). Figure 21. Parallel to the chromium content, the nitrogen absorption per unit surface area increases (8). That is why this treatment, designated by the term ‘low temperature treatment’, is being applied to a greater extent. Either a single- or a Ammonia requires no additional equipment and is relatively safe when properly handled; Compound layer growth of different steels at TN: 580 °C. With the discussion of nitridability, being a function of chemical composition and microstructure of the base material, based on the structural case constitution, it has to be differentiated between the influences of the microstructure of the compound layer and the precipitation process as well as the microstructure of the diffusion layer. Nitriding may be done in electric-heating furnaces. This was because the amount of diffused nitrogen was increased with nitriding temperature. Furnace Purging. A phosphate coating treatment may also be used for surface activation. This was because thickness of compound layer was increased with nitriding temperature, as shown in Fig. © 2015 Key to Metals AG. The mechanical properties of the nitrided layers are directly linked to the microstructure and precipitation phenomena that occur during nitrogen diffusion. As can be seen, in the ZeroFlow process the consumption of NH3 and exhaust gas emissions to the environment are 1.5 times lower than in the Floe process. Although various rates of dissociation can be used successfully in nitriding, it is The process involves low temperature (350-450°C) nitriding and/or carburizing, which super-saturates the surface of the metal and expands the lattice. Nascent nitrogen is XRD analysis was performed to examine the characteristics of the microstructure of the nitrided Ti-6Al-4 V alloy in more detail. An example is shown in Figure 6.16. The initial carbides (M23C6, M7C3) are transformed to the MN nitrides and the M3C (M = Cr, Fe) cementite during the nitrogen diffusion. Vickers hardness HV measured on the top surface and indentation depth d estimated based on the size of indentation mark are shown in this figure. J.P. Lebrun, in Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels, 2015. Relief of residual stresses from prior operations such as welding, hardening, The first portion of the cycle is accomplished as a normal nitriding cycle at a temperature of about 500 °C (930 °F) with 15 to 30% dissociation of the ammonia (i.e., an atmosphere that contains 70 to 85% ammonia). Gas Nitriding Gas nitriding is a case-hardening process whereby nitrogen is introduced into the surface of a solid ferrous alloy by holding the metal at a suitable temperature in contact with a nitrogenous gas, usually ammonia. L. Maldzinski, J. Tacikowski, in Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels, 2015. steels is between 495 and 565°C (925 and 1050°F). Since plasma is very effective in removing the passive layer of a chromium oxide formed naturally on the surface of stainless steel, UltraGlow® Ion (Plasma) Nitriding is widely used to harden (especially selective harden) stainless steel parts. Figure 6.14. May lower the apparent effective case depth because of the loss of core of the nitriding cycle, it is necessary to purge the air from the retort before the The number of heat treatment records is displayed in brackets next to the link. Any residual grit must be brushed off before pans are loaded into the This demonstrates that mono-phase γ′-compound layers on alloyed steels can only be generated by using a strongly decarburizing nitriding atmosphere due to the inner carburization. Figure 10.1(a) illustrates a typical initial microstructure for chromium steel grades after oil quenching and tempering, i.e. After 1 hour nitriding duration a linear porosity between the compound layer and the austenitic layer starts to form, leading to a hardness drop at this boundary. The pitting potential Epit of the AISI 316 steel, measured in a 1% NaCl electrolyte, decreased by nitriding at the surface from 213 mV approximately to the pitting potential of the unnitrided AISI 416 (− 40 mV). Read More Workpieces made of steels should be hardened and preliminarily nitrided to ensure good load-bearing properties. Advantages of nitrogen as a purging 17-7 PH, A-286, AM350 and AM355. The influence of these elements on the nitridability can be comprehended by means of the summation of the amount of substance of the nitride formers. Figure 12.21. Figure 9.15. This seems to result in brittle cracking and shortening of crack initiation life, in particular, with nitrided Ti–6Al–4 V ELI which has a relatively high Vickers hardness and thicker nitride- and nitrogen-rich layers. Schneider, in Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels, 2015. An extreme value of 1.3 × 104 μA/cm2 current density was measured in the diffusion zone after a layer removal of 96 microns. Furthermore, the massive pore formation at longer nitriding duration can lead to an additional reduction in hardness for austenitic nitriding. Initial trials showed that the same nitrided layer might be obtained at a temperature of 500°C. Gas nitriding is a form of steel heat treatment in which one uses heat to diffuse nitrogen-rich gas onto the surface of the metal with the intention of hardening it. The bodies of injector nozzles (Figure 12.17) are made from high-speed steel ASP 2005 HSS using a powder metallurgy process. For temperatures above 460°C, N2 development will cause the denitriding of the surface region. To define the search criteria, all you have to do is select the country/standard of interest to you from the ‘Country/Standard’ pop-up list and to check ‘Heat Treatment Diagram’ box, situated in the Special Search area of the form in the lower part of the Advanced Search page. This proved that inside the body of the nozzle the nitriding potential, rN, was lower than on the outside. For describing the precipitation-hardening process during nitriding, the hardness increase (extent of strengthening), the nitriding hardness depth (total depth of hardening), and the hardness profile within the diffusion zone (hardness plateau, extension of the transition zone between case (case hardness: maximal hardness of the diffusion layer near the compound layer) and core hardness) are important. Thanks to Total Materia we have issued real "international" specs for purchase of steels in foreign countries. For tool steels, the depth of the diffusion layer can be reached using low-pressure nitriding at around 103 Pa in order to increase the diffusivity of the nitrogen in the presence of a high quantity of alloying elements (Gawronski, 2000). Y. Nakamura, ... A. Ueno, in Recent Advances in Structural Integrity Analysis - Proceedings of the International Congress (APCF/SIF-2014), 2014. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Development of the compound layer during nitriding and nitrocarburising of iron and iron-carbon alloys, Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels, Austenitic nitriding and nitrocarburizing of steels, In ferritic nitriding the hardness profile depends mainly on the alloying element content (especially of Al, Cr, V, etc.) It is difficult to make the nitrided layers compatible with the nitride coating: the compound layer must be thicker than 5 μm and defects in the compound layer such as porosity should be kept to a minimum. An further advantage of ferritic nitriding as compared to austenitic nitriding is the higher maximum hardness level, well above 1000 HV, for higher alloying element contents, not only in the compound layer but also in the diffusion zone due to the precipitation hardening mechanism. Pans should be handled with clean gloves. Hardness profile in ferrite and pearlite of a nitrided case of steel 42CrMo4, gas oxinitrided at 570 °C for 16 h. Increasing chromium contents clearly reduce the hardening depth d, according to the relation d2 ∼ (at.% Cr)−1. Dissociation Rates. The result is a very hard vase component achieved using a low temperature … 3 shows the results of hardness tests. and that this rate be maintained for 4 to 10 h. Depending on the duration of the total M. Niinomi, in Metals for Biomedical Devices, 2010. It should also be mentioned that these two steel grades did not form an austenite layer due to their high chromium contents, so strictly speaking no nitrocarburizing in the austenite region was performed.

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