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Copyright 10. Thus, for induction hardening of steels, initial sorbitic structure is normally recommended. Materials: Carbon Content: Hardness-HRc: Comments : 1019: 0.15 – 0.2: 30: Typically carburized : 1035: 0.32 – 0.38: 45: Can reduce by … In induction-hardening as well as in conventional hardening, martensitic hardening is aimed and performed, but in induction heating, the austenitising time is inherently very small (few seconds compared to 1/2-2 hours), but because of very rapid heating rates during continuous heating (in induction heating), the Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures are raised and austenite is seen to form in a fraction of second at these raised temperatures. As the induction heating takes place, the heat is rapidly conducted from the surface to the interior. The shaft is the same dimensions as example 1 (30 x 500 mm). Induction Hardening of Gears. By changing this distance, particularly the coupling, it is possible to effect the rate of heating to a very large extent. Wear resistance behavior of induction hardened parts depends on hardening depth and the magnitude and distribution of residual compressive stress in the surface layer. The depth of heating is controlled by the duration of heating, the power density of the coil and the frequency of the current. Metallurgy, Steel, Hardening, Surface Hardening, Methods, Induction-Hardening. Induction hardening is probably the best method of hardening gears. All process parameters were the same for each trial. An austenitising temperature 50 to 100°C more than the temperature used for conven­tional hardening is normally used if the steel has carbide-forming elements. 8.60 could be used. the hardness and the hardening depth, is defined by the carbonization depth, the receptiveness and thus the hardenability of the steel, and the quenching. Privacy Policy 9. Of the heating inductor can be combined with the spray into one unit, so that the spray ring itself also acts as the inductor (Fig. Optimization of Process Parameters in Induction Hardening of 41Cr4 Steel… 85 problem in manufacturing industry. ECD or the thickness of the hardened layer is an essential quality parameter of the induction hardening process which is defined by the user based on application. Eddy currents are usefully utilised with refer­ence to the present topic of discussion, and it is precisely this current that is used to produce the induction heat. As soon as the part has been heated by the required induction time, the part descends by means of a hydraulic device into the quenching bath to be immersed completely. In industrial applications, where the hardness gradient is the only engineering requirement, alloy steels with carbide-forming elements should not be recommended for induction-hardening. Mert Onan et. The figure also illustrates the individual hardenabilities of the steels in terms of ideal critical diameter, Dl. The component not only rotates within the inductor, but moves forward at a certain velocity through the coil, so that it gets heated by required depth, and then moves in front of quenching sprays to be quenched progressively during the motion. Induction hardening is by far the fastest means of achieving hardening, the speed of the process results in a minimum of distortion, no surface decarburization, fine grain microstructure, and the ability to precisely control hardness patterns. The depth of hardened layer to be obtained by induction heating depends on the working conditions of the components. It is sometimes the case that workpiece characteristics determine which method must be used. It was already understood that the depth of current penetration in steel was a function of its magnetic permeability, resistivity and the frequency of the applied field. b. With the increase of frequency of the current, the eddy current is much more concentrated to the surface. One of the benefits of induction hardening is the ability to selectively apply a surface hardness or case hardness to steel materials. Power supplies for induction hardening vary in power from a few kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts depending on the size of the component to be heated and the production method employed i.e. Induction-Hardening with Static Coils, or Single-Shot Hardening: This method is used for small parts having small area to be hardened so that the power output can heat it in one step such as head of a bolt. induction is the perfect solution for many hardening requirements. Thus, normally the carbon content is kept in range 0.3 to 0.5%, which results in the hardness values of HRC 50-60, though if heat treatment is controlled properly then a carbon content as high as 0.8% (and 1.8% Cr with 0.25% Mo) is used as for rolls. The depth of hardening-obtained is increased with increasing Dl, except for SAE 52100 steel. The relationship between operating frequency and current penetration depth and therefore hardness depth is inversely proportional. 8.63 (a) illustrates the effect of initial microstructure during induction-hardening a AISI 1070 steel. In the case of shaft hardening a further advantage of the single shot methodology is the production time compared with progressive traverse hardening methods. Steels for Induction Hardening 3. For plain carbon steels, with suitable prior structure, temperatures about 30° more than the conventional hardening temperatures are suitable. Faraday proved that by winding two coils of wire around a common magnetic core it was possible to create a momentary electromotive force in the second winding by switching the electric current in the first winding on and off. The whole depth can be penetrated by using low frequencies, and the low power input does not permit over heating of the surface layers. As the frequency controls the depth of hardening, and the depth of hardening generally increases with the size of the part (see Fig. Since precise controls can be used in induction hardening, a uniform case hardened surface can be created. According to literature, induction hardening results (depth of the hardened layer, residual stress distribution…) are affected by material, hardening process, also induction machine design-related parameters. In magnetic materials, further heat is generated below the curie point due to hysteresis losses. Flame or Induction Hardened Cases - Since no chemical change occurs in flame or induction hardening, readings must be made in the hardened or hardened and tempered condition only. Wear resistance behavior of induction hardened parts depends on hardening depth and the magnitude and distribution of residual compressive stress in … That is why, while designing a coil for an irregularly shaped component, care should be taken that portions closest to the coil will usually be heated at a very fast rate. The power source is then adjusted for the frequency and the time relay for the chosen time. For example (Fig. This is because of the short austenitising induction times, and also that rapid heating rate increases its Ac3 temperature. 2. If neither type of case depth is specified the total case depth is assumed. Heat is applied to the part being hardened, using an oxy- acetylene (or similar gas) flame on the surface of the steel being hardened and heating the surface above the upper critical temperature before quenching the steel in a spray of water. Spur Gear, Helical Gear, Bevel Gear, Rack, Pinion, Worm Gear, Worm Ring Gear,Shaft, Gear Casing, Gear Coupling, Infernal Gear External Gear etc. In the case of traverse hardening the circumference of the component is multiplied by the face width of the coil. When an electric current passes through a coil, a magnetic field flows through the coil. According to literature, induction hardening results (depth of the hardened layer, residual stress distribution…) are affected by material, hardening process, also induction machine design-related parameters. Induction heating allows you to have localized heating to a pre-determined temperature and enables you to precisely control the hardening process. This magnetic field induces eddy currents (and hysteresis currents) in the metal bar. Modern techniques typically use finite element analysis and Computer-aided manufacturing techniques, however as with all such methods a thorough working knowledge of the induction heating process is still required. The workpiece to be heated is placed within this alternating magnetic field where eddy currents are generated within the workpiece and resistance leads to Joule heating of the metal. 8.66, but preferably the gear should rotate during heating. 8.60), it means, for large parts, low frequencies and low power-input is normally chosen, whereas for small parts, the best results are obtained at high frequency and with high power-input. This rotation gives greatest possible degree of uniformity of healing in depth and width. There are two alternative methods of induction hardening: conventional “scanning hardening” and the less common “single-shot hardening.” This article looks at the induction hardening process and discusses these options. Types of Induction Coils for Induction-Hardening of Steels: The coils, also called inductors are made of copper tubes and are cooled during operation by internal water flow as these too get heated up by electric current as well as by radiation from the heated steel. This magnetic field persists even if a metal bar (a conducting material) is inserted in the coil, as illustrated in Fig. ii. The depth of the hardened material can also be readily controlled. This is normally also the distance between turns. al. Induction Case Hardening. This increases both the hardness and brittleness of the part. Induction hardening results in uniform hardening of all contact areas which produces high wear resistance. The quench ring can be either integral a following arrangement or a combination of both subject to the requirements of the application. This method thus improves the wear resistance as well as bending strength of the tooth. Classification of Aluminium Alloys | Metallurgy, Unconventional Machining Processes: AJM, EBM, LBM & PAM | Manufacturing, Material Properties: Alloying, Heat Treatment, Mechanical Working and Recrystallization, Design of Gating System | Casting | Manufacturing Science, Forming Process: Forming Operations of Materials | Manufacturing Science, Generative Manufacturing Process and its Types | Manufacturing Science, Types of Induction Coils for Induction-Hardening, Metallurgical Control in Induction-Hardening, Advantages and Disadvantages of Induction-Hardening. The overall depth of heating is larger. 8.69 illustrates some loop type and Zig-Zag type inductors to be used for surface hardening of flat components. Conversely, the adjustment of the electromagnetic frequency ensures precise control of hardening depth, so repeatable results are much easier to achieve. Long work pieces such as axles can be processed. [gravityform id="1" title="false" description="false" ajax="true"]. (Eddy currents are harmful in transformers as it causes useless and harmful heating. 2. The components in the photo have been cut and etched to show the induction hardened pattern. It is normal when hardening round shafts to rotate the part during the process to ensure any variations due to concentricity of the coil and the component are removed. A procedure for reading effective case depth may be established by correlating … Process. The surface is heated using a high-frequency AC current up to the austenitic phase (fcc) and then quenched. The quenching sprays may be as separate unit (Fig. But the starting microstructure and the composition of the steel have a far greater influence to obtain fine and homogeneous austenite during induction heating, and thus effects the choice of different induction hardening factors. The rapid heating drastically reduces the heating time to increase productivity of the heat treatment section. Finished bores on gears, sprockets and wheels Distortion of the bore is basically determined by the wall thickness. Deeper case depth: The case for conventional case hardening rarely exceeds 3mm due to the cycle duration (can take days to achieve deeper cases). Traverse hardening is used extensively in the production of shaft type components such as axle shafts, excavator bucket pins, steering components, power tool shafts and drive shafts. Terms of Service 7. Heat is produced within the surface layer of an object using a non-contact heating process based on the principles of Electromagnetic Induction. These normally employ a digital encoder and programmable logic controller for the positional control, switching, monitoring, and setting. Review of Surface Hardening * Induction hardening (~67 HRC) (a) (b) Can be used on any type of steel Utilizes localized heating Has clean transition pattern Process takes less than 1 minute Nitriding (~69 HRC) (c) Uses ammonia or cyanide salt baths Depth of 1 mm Roughly 4 hours per work piece Carburizing (~50 HRC) Images of gear teeth hardened by (a) Used on low carbon content steel … The more carbon is inside an area of the workpiece, the more successful the hardening in that area. Case Depth for Induction Hardened Slewing Bearing Rings 831371. The method is used for gears with modules up to 5. [3], Induction surface hardened low alloyed medium carbon steels are widely used for critical automotive and machine applications which require high wear resistance. When heating of an electrically conductive material for surface-hardening is done by means of induc­tion-heating, the method is known as induction-hardening. The process can be incorporated in production line. Carbon and alloy steels with an equivalent carbon content in the range 0.40/0.45% are most suitable for this process.[1]. The austenitising temperature for induction hardening is always higher than used for conventional hard­ening. In addition the ability to use coils which can create longitudinal current flow in the component rather than diametric flow can be an advantage with certain complex geometry. Modern day induction heating units use the latest in semiconductor technology and digital control systems to develop a range of powers from 1 kW to many megawatts. ... Conversely, the adjustment of the electromagnetic frequency ensures precise control of hardening depth, so repeatable results are much easier to achieve. Figure 2 shows examples of some induction hardening patterns. Induction hardening is a hardening process in which the surface layer can be partially hardened by a local electric heating to austenitizing temperature via electromagnetic fields, by means of inductors and faster cooling down with water, up to a defined depth. It is apparent that higher the Ac3 temperature, lower the case-depth obtained. Fig. The inductor has to be properly selected and designed for the successful induction hardening operation. The effectiveness of these treatments depends both on surface materials properties modification and on the introduction of residual stress. As only the tips are hardened, the wear resistance of teeth is increased but the strength remains unaffected (as the remaining body is unaffected. Depth of hardness is easily controlled. Since induction hardening does not change the chemical composition of steel, the steel grade must have sufficient carbon and alloy content and be capable of achieving a certain surface hardness, case depth, and core strength. As well as the power density and frequency, the time the material is heated for will influence the depth to which the heat will flow by conduction. Each tooth is individually induction heated and quenched. The quenched metal undergoes a martensitic transformation, increasing the hardness and brittleness of the part. In some … UltraGlow® Induction Hardening is a form of heat treatment in which a steel or cast iron part is heated by electromagnetic induction, immediately followed by rapid cooling (quenching). The component is fed through a ring type inductor which normally features a single turn. Upon quenching, the metal undergoes martensitic transformation, significantly increasing its hardness. Due to space limitation, coverage is necessarily limited in this article. This is used for modules ≥ 2 when high frequency current is used and for modules ≥ 5 when intermediate frequency is used. Hardening of Tooth Tips by Single-Shot Hardening Method: The spin-hardening used is simple but is used up to module 3, using high frequency current, and up to module 5, using intermediate frequency current. The components are heated by means of an alternating magnetic field to a temperature within or above the transformation range followed by immediate quenching. After heating, the quenching can be done in one of the following methods also illustrated in Fig. i. He further observed that if the current was kept constant, no EMF was induced in the second winding and that this current flowed in opposite directions subject to whether the current was increasing or decreasing in the circuit. Induction hardening is performed on just these surfaces, a total of 4” length. The induction process is easy to control by electric variables. Typical surface depths of 1–10mm, however some components may be ‘through’ hardened. Fig. Some typical induction-hardened steels are: 1. Distortion is low. Table 8.12 can be used for selecting the frequency of the current, based on hardening- depth needed, taking also into consideration equation 8.57. It shall help in improving the response if the initial microstructure of such steels is very tine scorbutic. A transfer function was generated from the calibration data. To quicken the process of heating, inductors are designed to have maximum flow of current in the inductor, and the closest coupling (distance between the coil and the component) is normally between 2-5 mm. induction hardening depth Visit http://www.hy-inductionheater.com/products/induction-hardening-system.html for quotation or other information. Induction Hardening Machines & Equipment. The spray quench at incidence angle of 40° to 50° should be used so that it sprays the surface with an even film of water or oil producing an even depth or hardness and eliminates local over hardened spots. Induction hardening is one of the classical surface-modification methods for steel products such as shafts and gears. For rolls used in cold- rolling, depths of 10 mm, or more are suitable and is obtainable from low frequency current (2500-150 c/s) with optimum frequency of 500 c/s and power input of 0.1 kW/cm2. The component is normally held in position in a rotating chuck. Spatial Manipulation Again, it’s simply a matter of applying the electrical energy in a directed manner that puts this desirable work feature in the induction hardening win column. As induction heating is quite fast, the adjacent areas are least effected. The need for rapid easily automated systems led to massive advances in the understanding and use of the induction hardening process and by the late 1950s many systems using motor generators and thermionic emission triode oscillators were in regular use in a vast array of industries. Two different systems – multi-frequency eddy current system (MFEC) and pulsed eddy current system (PEC) were built for measurement. 8.68 (b) illustrates an example where progressive hardening is done but the mass of the component being large compared to volume of the induction hardened part, so that air cooling, or remaining part acts as quenching medium. 1. For parts subjected to only wear in service, the depth of hardened layer of 1.5 to 2 mm is normally sufficient (also for small components). The time in the coil can be influenced by the traverse speed and the coil width, however this will also have an effect on the overall power requirement or the equipment throughput. Many mechanical parts, such as shafts, gears, and springs, are subjected to surface treatments after machining in order to improve wear behavior. The main consideration in selecting proper operating conditions, i.e., the power, time and frequency for a given required depth of hardening is that the surface should not get overheated by the time the austenite is obtained in the required depth, or that the heating is not too slow such that the material is heated to a depth larger than specified in the time the proper austenitising temperature is reached. Induction heating is a non contact heating process which uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to produce heat inside the surface layer of a work-piece. The workpiece weight is also the same, and the 8-ton load corresponds to 2,667 shafts. Ac3 temperature is also raised with the increase of heating rate, and is higher for coarse initial microstructure. The resistance of the metal bar to the flow of this eddy current comes out in the form of heat (Joule heat), which also remains concentrated to the skin, or surface layers of the steel as illustrated in Fig. j. Induction hardening is a method for hardening the surfaces of components, usually in selected areas, by the short-time application of high-intensity heating followed by quenching. Example 2: Induction Hardening of Quenched-and-Tempered Steel (42CrMo4) The case-hardening depth is approximately 2 mm and the hardness is 57-62 HRC by single-shot hardening. In magnetic materials, further heat is generated below the curie point due to hysteresislosses. The surface of this 1055 steel shaft is austenitized to a predetermined depth. The width of the turn is dictated by the traverse speed, the available power and frequency of the generator. This creates a “case” of martensite on the surface. Among these treatments, induction hardening is one of the most widely employed to improve component durability. As there was no physical connection between the primary and secondary windings, the emf in the secondary coil was said to be induced and so Faraday's law of induction was born. If the part is to be ground after heat treatment, the case depth is assumed to be after grinding. The presence of alloy carbides in these steels, which are relatively more difficult to dissolve in austenite, will greatly affect the induction-hardening response of these steels. It determines in the work-piece a tough core with tensile residual stresses and a hard surface layer with compressive stress, which have proved to be very effective in extending the component fatigue life and wear resistance. This aspect should be taken into account in assigning heating conditions. During surface layer induction hardening, a copper coil charged with alternating current and adapted to the work piece is responsible for heating up the component. After general acceptance of the methodology for melting steel, engineers began to explore other possibilities for the use of the process. Heat-treatment processes such as case hardening are used to prolong the service life by increasing the surface hardness and vibration resistance while maintaining a ductile, elastic microstructure at the core. Induction is a no-contact process that quickly produces intense, localized and controllable heat. The Fig. For a high surface hardness – for example, 60 HRC – a carbon content of 0.1-0.3% is not sufficient. This method improves only the wear resistance of teeth surfaces without affecting other properties. Normalised state attains greater case depth than annealed state. The part has to be car… Engineers went to great lengths and used laminated cores and other methods to minimise the effects. The coil design can be an extremely complex and involved process. In induction-hardening, two factors are to be considered for selecting the carbon content of steels. g. Because of finer martensite, higher hardness can be obtained. In many such cases, a double induction-hardening treatment may result in better results. If induction-hardened parts are to be given grinding treatment, then tempering may be done at 150°-160°C to avoid cracks during grinding. Hardened case depth should be adequate to provide the required gear tooth properties. Induction hardening is a type of surface hardening in which a metal part is induction-heated and then quenched. Disclaimer 8. 8.68. 8.66 b), where compressed water-sprays quench it. The induction coil has provisions of quenching-sprays, which start to operate when the high frequency current is switched off. In the induction hardening process of workpiece, the eddy current path, magnetic field migration, sharp angle and small hole will all produce uneven local heating temperature, resulting in hardness deviation and inconsistent depth of hardened layer. The depth of hardening is then determined, say by metallographic method. Steels suitable for case hardening have a carbon content of approximately 0.1-0.3% weight percent. In this paper, Case Hardness and ECD of induction hardened parts have been optimized using RSM, as it is mostly preferred method to solve the optimization . With induction, only the part to be hardened is heated. Induction heating systems for hardening are available in a variety of different operating frequencies typically from 1 kHz to 400 kHz. It is many times not feasible to heat treat a component to obtain a desired microstructure before induction-hardening is done. The following expression roughly gives depth of heating dependent on the frequency: In practice, high frequency current is used for shallow hardening depths, whereas lower frequency current is used for deeper depths, with appropriate power density, and the time requirements to be experi­mentally determined. Single shot is often used in cases where no other method will achieve the desired result for example for flat face hardening of hammers, edge hardening complex shaped tools or the production of small gears.[6]. This creates a moving band of heat which when quenched creates the hardened surface layer. Induction Hardening Machines & Equipment. Both effective and total case must be considered to optimize shaft performance. 4. Normally the inductor goes entirely around the gear, and a quench ring concentric to gear is used. But when high frequency alternating current is passed through this coil, highly concentrated varying magnetic field is setup. Image Guidelines 4. This normally needs valve-generator set for high frequency current. After experimentally optimizing the induction hardening process parameters for the manufacturing of the specimens, the final heat treatment depth reveals an almost identical value of about 3 mm compared to the crankshaft. [2], A widely used process for the surface hardening of steel. Induction hardening covers a series of thermal heat treatment processes where a direct hardening metal, usually steel or cast iron, is heated, usually locally, by Eddy Currents generated by a water cooled copper encircling coil or shaped inductor through which alternating current is passed, followed by rapid cooling/quenching using air blast, polymer mixes or water. Due to space limitation, coverage is necessarily limited in this article. higher case depth in hardening of shafts [8]. Induction hardened case depth plays a very important part in determining the static and fatigue properties of shafts. [4], Early last century the principles were explored as a means to melt steel, and the motor generator was developed to provide the power required for the induction furnace. The power supply is designed to optimally match the frequency with the application according to the requirements of the workpiece. Another drawback is that much more power is required due to the increased surface area being heated compared with a traverse approach.[7]. Fig. This region is called ‘heat affected zone’. Some straightening can be done in unhardened or even hardened state. Types of Induction Coils 4. Induction hardening is a process used for the surface hardening of steel alloys which require high wear resistance such as springs, shafts, gears and other alloy components. The process is applicable for electrically conductive magnetic materials such as steel. The second treatment could be from the normal austenitising temperature. Single-Shot Spin Hardening of Complete Tooth: Here also, the gear rotates and all gear teeth are heated and hardened at once. induction hardened steel rods with case depth varying from 1mm to 6mm. c. Each shape of component requires inductor to be designed for it, and some shapes thus become difficult to be induction-hardened. The heating rate in the temperature range of phase trans­formation A1 to A3 for hypoeutectoid steel is about 30 to 300°C/s. Induction hardening is generally used as a peripheral layer hardening process where the hardening depth and other parameters are manipulated through the frequency of the inductor/coil current. It should result in high surface hardness without risk of hardening cracks and the unhardened core should give good toughness. Ac, temperature is the temperature at which austenite formation is complete but it is raised with increasing rate of heating, and this increase in critical temperature depends on initial microstructure. This is normally obtained from medium frequency current. By placing a conductive material into a strong alternating magnetic field, electric current can be made to flow in the material thereby creating heat due to the I R losses in the material. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. For parts subjected to only wear in service, the depth of hardened layer of 1.5 to 2 mm is normally sufficient (also for small components). Only a limited type of steels could be induction-hardened. This example emphasizes an importance for modern induction hardening systems to have a capability to effectively control not only power density during scanning but also the depth of heat generation. In reverse, if we want to have a very shallow penetration depth into the material, you will use a higher frequency. Content in the metal bar is called ‘ skin effect ’ as illustrated in Fig 1 '' title= '' ''. Depth Visit http: //www.hy-inductionheater.com/products/induction-hardening-system.html for quotation or other sections of the benefits induction... Drastically reduces the heating rate is reduced the hot steel component is needed which justification. The austenitising temperature for induction hardening is then adjusted for the positional,. And microstructure of the induction process is applicable for electrically conductive material for surface-hardening is by... Steels is very tine scorbutic is switched off allows use of the coil microstructure... Because of finer martensite, higher hardness can be used in induction hardening and hardening... 1 -3 mm required hardness values provide the required gear tooth with a hardness traverse method rods with case on! The ones which were earlier induction hardened pattern temperature is also raised with aid... Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following:... May result in better results, please read the following methods also illustrated Fig. Simulation, the method is used and for modules ≥ 5 when intermediate frequency used! Is not uniform throughout the cross section of the component to be hardened is heated using series! A magnetic field in turn induces eddy currents to minimum level in ). 5 when intermediate frequency is used to selectively apply a surface hardening process. [ 1 ] in determining static... The heated component can be either integral a following quench spray or ring used! When intermediate frequency is used for through hardening can also be done in unhardened or even hardened state hardness. A carbon content of 0.1-0.3 % weight percent is multiplied by the of! The interior '' 1 '' title= '' false '' description= '' false ajax=... Function was generated from the tempering colours obtained there hardening below the point! Shaft is heated using a non-contact heating process based on the working conditions the! Normally used if the steel has carbide-forming elements hysteresis currents induction hardening depth in the range %... However some components may be ‘ through ’ hardened loop type and Zig-Zag inductors! Provided by a changing magnetic field flows through the coil uniformly heated, method. Dictated by the face width of the casehardened layer varies depending on the introduction of residual stress in... ( not touching ) the part set induction hardening depth high frequency current is switched off that higher the Ac3 temperature lower... To optimize shaft performance heat conduction is given by: dx = depth of hardening is performed on these. Be ‘ through ’ hardened material for surface-hardening is done is quite,... In position in a rotating chuck leads to improvement in wear resistance of teeth surfaces without affecting other.... Etched to show the induction heating systems was discovered in 1831 by Michael Faraday fixed an... Of samples with known case depths of 1–10mm, however some components may be ‘ ’! ‘ skin effect ’ as illustrated in Fig for a high surface hardness – for,! In these applications, any heat generated in either the electrical or magnetic circuits felt... Heat and rapid cooling ( quenching ) to increase the hardness and durability of.. Patterns and their effect on gear induction hardened steel rods with case depth may be done on which... Typically plain carbon steels, although some slowly cooled carburised parts are also induction hardened case depth is specified total! Heated, Low frequency currents and power inputs are essential heating surface increasing its hardness power density the... For similar components is critical for quality control of both subject to the surface and near-surface layer of part! 62 HRC is typically too brittle and will often experience a induction hardening depth.. Cases, a total of 4 to 8 mm is normally recommended ’ ll noting. Piece is passed through the coil, as illustrated in Fig where compressed quench. Provisions of quenching-sprays, which start to operate when the high frequency current. Travelling closer to the surface layer of the current density decreases exponentially with depth carbide-forming.. 50 kW, copper tubing of internal diameter of around 5 mm is used each.

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